Wednesday, May 20, 2020

What Creates the Tides and Determines Their Timing

The gravitational pull of the moon and the sun creates tides on the earth. While tides are most commonly associated with oceans and large bodies of water, gravity creates tides in the atmosphere and even the lithosphere (the surface of the earth). The atmospheric tidal bulge extends far into space but the tidal bulge of the lithosphere is limited to approximately 12 inches (30 cm) twice a day. The moon, which is approximately 240,000 miles (386,240 km) from the earth, exerts a greater influence on the tides than does the sun, which sits 93 million miles (150 million km) from the earth. The strength of the suns gravity is 179 times that of the moons but the moon is responsible for 56% of the earths tidal energy while the sun claims responsibility for a mere 44% (due to the moons proximity but the suns much larger size). Due to the cyclic rotation of the earth and moon, the tidal cycle is 24 hours and 52 minutes long. During this time, any point on the earths surface experiences two high tides and two low tides. The tidal bulge that occurs during high tide in the world ocean follows the revolution of the moon, and the earth rotates eastward through the bulge once every 24 hours and 50 minutes. The water of the entire world ocean is pulled by the moons gravity. On the opposite side of the earth simultaneously there is a high tide due to the inertia of the ocean water and because the earth is being pulled toward the moon by its gravitational field yet the ocean water remains left behind. This creates a high tide on the side of the earth opposite the high tide caused by the direct pull of the moon. Points on the sides of the earth between the two tidal bulges experience low tide. The tidal cycle can begin with high tide. For 6 hours and 13 minutes after high tide, the tide recedes in what is known as ebb tide. 6 hours and 13 minutes following high tide is low tide. After low tide, the flood tide begins as the tide rises for the next 6 hours and 13 minutes until high tide occurs and the cycle begins again. Tides are most pronounced along the coastline of the oceans and in bays where tidal range (the difference in height between low tide and high tide) is increased due to the topography and other factors. The Bay of Fundy between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in Canada experiences the worlds greatest tidal range of 50 feet (15.25 meters). This incredible range occurs two times ever 24 hours 52 minutes so every 12 hours and 26 minutes theres a single high tide and a low tide. Northwestern Australia is also home to very high tidal ranges of 35 feet (10.7 meters). Typical coastal tide range is 5 to 10 feet (1.5 to 3 meters). Large lakes also experience tides but the tidal range is often less than 2 inches (5 cm)! The Bay of Fundy tides are one of 30 locations worldwide where the power of tides can be harnessed to turn turbines to produce electricity. This requires tides greater than 16 feet (5 meters). In areas of higher than usual tides a tidal bore can often can be found. A tidal bore is a wall or wave of water that moves upstream (especially in a river) at the onset of high tide. When the sun, moon, and the earth are lined up, the sun and moon are exerting their strongest force together and tidal ranges are at their maximum. This is known as spring tide (spring tides are not named from the season but from spring forward) This occurs twice each month when the moon is full and new. In the first quarter and third quarter moon, the sun and moon are at a 45Â ° angle to each other and their gravitational energy is diminished. The lower than the normal tidal range that takes place at these times are called neap tides. Additionally, when the sun and moon are at perigee and are as close to the earth as they get, they exert a greater gravitational influence and produce greater tidal ranges. Alternatively, when the sun and moon as far as they get from the earth, known as apogee, tidal ranges are smaller. The knowledge of the height of tides, both low and high, is vital for many functions, including navigation, fishing, and the construction of coastal facilities.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Socratic Citizen - 2050 Words

Assignment I: Is Socrates a good citizen? Discuss with reference to the Apology and the Crito. The Socratic Citizen Plato’s Socrates is a character plagued and prized with contradictions. He professed to care for nothing so much as virtue and human excellence but was incriminated by the greatest and most open democracy in ancient history. He was wrongfully convicted, yet unwilling to avoid his unjust execution. He is at once the most Athenian, citizenly, patriotic, and other-regarding of philosophers—and yet the most critical and self-regarding of Athenians. In exploring that contradiction, between â€Å"Socrates the loyal Athenian citizen† and â€Å"Socrates the philosophical critic of Athenian society,† Aristotle’s Politics comes to mind: â€Å"the†¦show more content†¦He presents himself as a human being of unparalleled piety and devotion who will risk life itself rather than abandon the duty that has been given to him. Socrates claims to be a selfless benefactor of the polis in that he had exhausted his private resources in the pursuit of the public good (23b-c, 30a, 31a-c). Because he does what is good for his fellow citizens for whom he feels regard despite the danger to which this exposes him, Socrates claims to be a benefactor of the Athenians. He refers with pride to his record of military service and underlines that it was service to the democracy: â€Å"When the commanders that you elected to command me stationed me at Potidaea and Amphipolis and Delion, I remained there like anyone else, and ran the risk of death† (28e). He is an honorable citizen who disregards death and preaches that â€Å"The difficulty, my friends, is not to avoid death, but to avoid unrighteousness; for that runs faster than death.† He has demonstrated that he is, by his own right, a patriotic citizen who cares deeply about the good of his polis and one who consistently acts in what he sees as his cityâ⠂¬â„¢s best interests; but he has also shown also that, in light of his own definition of patriotism, Socrates must be regarded as a uniquely patriotic Athenian. Unlike the Apology, the Crito seems intended to exhibit the character of Socrates in oneShow MoreRelatedThe Is An Oligarchy Would Be The Best For Athens?1683 Words   |  7 Pagesthe more people who have jobs and are paid the more money there would be circulating through the economy. They also thought the Socratics were biased and that everyone should be happy if they get the right to vote. The Oligarchs believe an oligarchy would be the best for Athens because action happens faster when fewer people have a say. As I am about to leave, a Socratic approached me and tells me I have a place in their society because I am educated. But do I want to live in a society without allRead MoreAthens vs Socrates1521 Words   |  7 PagesAthenian democracy ensures that a citizen in a society acts according to what society deems appropriate rather than by an individuals assumptions of what is acceptable. Athens as a whole stresses the importance of an active citizen whose life is intertwined with the government. In essence, an Athenian citizen can participate in the decision making of the state and will be enthusiastic in carrying out policies that pass in the assembly. Pericles, an Athenian statesman, makes it clear when he saysRead MoreAncient Greek Influences Essay886 Words   |  4 Pagesdemocracy, citizens had no rights and there were no guidelines for who was considered a citizen. Democracy gave voting rights and the ability to hold office to citizens – free men born in Greece, usually landowners. Today’s modern democracy is accessible to all people and has a higher degree of organization and hierarchy, it still derives its basic prinicples from Greek democracy. The origins are Western philosophy and sciences are found in Ancient Greece, beginning with the pre-Socratic philosophersRead MoreBiography of Socrates, An Annotated Bibliography1581 Words   |  6 PagesBlanchard, Jr. â€Å"The Enemies of Socrates: Piety and Sophism in the Socratic Drama.† The Review of Politics. 62.3 (2003): 421-449. Print. Blanchard, is a professor political science professor at Northern State University. He is also the author of many author book and articles. In his article, â€Å"The Enemies of Socrates: Piety and Sophism in the Socratic Drama,† he portrays the collision between the philosopher and his fellow citizens is the central dramatic event. These collisions between the philosophers’Read MoreThe Complicated Life of Socrates1183 Words   |  5 PagesPolitical Philosophy, and Ethics, his teachings was in disagreement with the teachings of the democracy of Athens, which led to him being put to death. Along with his philosophical beliefs, Socrates’ great thinking led to the creation of the Socratic Method and the Socratic Paradoxes. Socrates’ philosophical beliefs and life isn’t accurately represented in the modern world. Since there aren’t any writings from Socrates himself, his life, beliefs, and philosophy has to be depicted through the writings ofRead MoreThe Socratic Method Essays975 Words   |  4 Pageswhat we value most. What lies in the midst of our thoughts, that an â€Å"unexamined life† is acceptable? Through the use of questioning we begin to break down the walls of ignorance and live a life that is worth living. In 399 B.C., three Athenian citizens brought a public charge against Socrates, which is seen throughout the book, The Apology. Like all other Greeks, specifically the Athenians believed that the gods would damn the entire city if people went against their gods, so to not anger the godsRead Moresocratic seminar962 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿To Kill a Mockingbird Socratic Seminar On the upcoming block day we will have a Socratic Seminar in which we discuss the chapters in To Kill a Mockingbird that deal with Tom Robinson’s trial and its aftermath. Your assignment is to prepare for the seminar ahead of time, participate in the seminar and capture the main ideas of the discussion in your notes. A Socratic Seminar is a formal discussion, named after the famous Greek philosopher, Socrates, who literally gave his life for his beliefRead MoreAnalysis Of The Four Major Identitys By Mark Lilla795 Words   |  4 Pagesthat I was more interested in and I as well viewed more positively compared to the other three identities, which was Sage. One of the reasons why I found the Sage more interesting than the other three identities; the soldier, the saint, and the citizen was because professor Lillia said that there are two types of sage. The first one being, one who draws lessons from worldly experiences and uses them to guide their actions in the world. The second type of sage is the one to question their experienceRead MoreAristotle s Views Of Poetry Essay1671 Words   |  7 PagesSocratic moral philosophy is important in poetry because it engages poets in rational thinking when making poems. Poetry is mostly communicated through written texts; it can be used to expand one’s knowledge of himself or herself and the world. However, philosophers disparage poetry by its composition and senses such as imitation, representation, fiction, and expression. On this note, Socrates used philosophical explorations to criticize the role of poetry in the world. Many poets engage in imitationRead MoreSpart The Most Unfortunate E vents848 Words   |  4 Pagesapparent the members of the Assembly had different ideas of what was the best approach. The Socratics decided Athens needed to worry about itself first and gather its strength before entering yet another war. The Oligarchs agreed that we were not equipped with the proper resources needed to go to war. Many of the citizens also voiced their opinions and did not want to go to war. However, the same citizens voiced concern on lack of defenses if attacked. The Democrats both agreed that it would be

Evolution of Cool-Roof Standards in the US

Question: Discuss the following points...Industry Analysis plus TrendsApartment plus condominium construction industryFactors which affect sizes of dissimilar elasticity of the demand for the houses? Answer: Industry Analysis plus Trends In wake of the economic recovery, some decreased vacancy also rates as well as lowers the rent prices that have facilitated development and growth in the complex starts. Additionally, declining the homeownership rates and aggressive lending to multifamily sector as well as gains within both employment as well as disposable income also have boosted the demand for apartments plus condominiums (Akbari Levinson, 2008). What industry comprises of: Apartment as well as industry for Condominium Construction is also primarily self-possessed of common contractors as well as construction management firms that also build multifamily sectors for varied range of dissimilar markets all across United States, also including the real estate investment firms, investors of individual property, developers of the real estate, tourism sector as well as federal plus state governments (Holden Kamenka, 1948). The industry also operators characteristically act as GC for the project, which also entails total planning plus organization of build-out, comprising of securing materials and also hiring subcontractors as well as complying with regional regulations. Apartment plus condominium construction industry: This industry actually comprises of common contractors accountable for the constructing novel multifamily units that are residential, including some high-rise apartments and also townhouses, condominiums as well as medium-till-high units i.e. units that are never separated from the ground-towards-roof wall ('How does advertising affect the price elasticity of lodging demand? Evidence from Taiwan', n.d.). Supply of the substitutes: If the supply of substitutes such as rented lodging decreases or descends then there exits a net augment in the demand for the houses plus vice versa. If supply of the rented house is less, also then there exists an enhancement in price and cost of the rented apartments. Thus, in long term people also find that this is cheaper and buying houses cost less than to own and live in any rented accommodation. Therefore, then these people tend to buy a house. Thus, they tend to increase the net demand of the houses (Lee Ha, 2013). Factors which affect sizes of dissimilar elasticity of the demand for the houses Responsiveness of quantity of the houses demanded towards change in the prices, income and also price of some other goods, and many more is even measured through corresponding elasticity which is Price elasticity for the demand of the houses, Income elasticity for demand of the houses, otherwise the Cross prices and its elasticity of the demand of the houses (Millichap, 2011). Demands for houses are increasing: With enhancement and development of more and more urban locations and growing demand of concrete the actual demand for houses are increasing and this has lead to growth in making of apartments and other big accommodations (Millichap, Stack Millichap, 2010). This even enhances the lifestyle of people staying thereby. This enhancement in demand will keep on growing with each passing year. Comparision: Baltimore Charlotte Baltimore employers of metro would later on add to the positions in government as well as education plus health services segment, drawing extra college-educated and also young workers that also seeks to the rent apartments within the live-work ecologies Charlottes developing the economy also has made this as an attractive aim and destination for some young professionals and also increasing the apartment demand as well as encouraging growth of the rent and also development of the same. Because novel residents actually enter market, developers that are optimistic as well as continue towards delivering the apartments, along with a proper focus upon the downtown Baltimore which is very close to entertainment hubs and universities, plus hospitals as well as some other vital employers. Though construction pipeline also thought of to become slow considerably from the last years increased pace, some three years of the elevated ending volumes would also push up the vacancy into low 5% range. Despite of the positive or optimistic demographic trends as well as public works also projects that would lift local economy, this city has slipped within NAI because of the job growth more or less below projected rate. This city slid a single spot in NAI all behind the high vacancy as well as below-average growth of the rent Employers in this city would increase the jobs by some 1.6 percent, also adding about 22,000 to the payrolls in the year 2015 Charlotte employers would also create some 22,000 jobs in the current year and also expanding the total employment to some 2.4 percent. Keeping speed with the housing demand, makers would also add some 2,150 units every year and lifting the supply by some 1.1 percent. After the delivery of 7,800 units in the last year, construction pipeline would then slow down considerably as some 4,600 rentals will be delivered in the current year. Source: (Tough MacDonald, 1953), ('US to resume building nuclear reactors', 2012) References Akbari, H., Levinson, R. (2008). Evolution of Cool-Roof Standards in the US. Advances In Building Energy Research, 2(1), 1. doi:10.3763/aber.2008.0201.2.1.1 Holden, A., Kamenka, H. (1948). Flats: Modern Developments in Apartment House Construction. Land Economics, 24(4), 406. doi:10.2307/3159294 How does advertising affect the price elasticity of lodging demand? Evidence from Taiwan. Tourism Economics. doi:10.5367/te.2014.0390 Lee, S., Ha, M. (2013). Customer interactive building information modeling for apartment unit design. Automation In Construction, 35, 424-430. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2013.05.026 Millichap, J. (2011). Febrile Seizure Duration Association With Development. AAP Grand Rounds, 26(5), 49-49. doi:10.1542/gr.26-5-49 Millichap, J., Stack, C., Millichap, J. (2010). Frequency of Epileptiform Discharges in the Sleep-Deprived Electroencephalogram in Children Evaluated for Attention-Deficit Disorders. Journal Of Child Neurology, 26(1), 6-11. doi:10.1177/0883073810371228 Tough, R., MacDonald, G. (1953). Apartment Building Construction Manhattan 1901-1953. Land Economics, 29(4), 363. doi:10.2307/3144688 US to resume building nuclear reactors. (2012). New Scientist, 213(2852), 4. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(12)60391-1

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Reading In The Dark By Deane Essays - Paranormal Television

Reading In The Dark By Deane In his novel, Reading In the Dark, Seamus Deane tells the story of an Irish Catholic family in Northern Ireland between the late Forties and early Seventies. He traces the path taken by a growing boy searching for and finding the truth about his family during this very tumultuous time and having to come to terms with what he discovers. Deane uses this family to illustrate the issues surrounding history that are central to the deeper understanding of his novel. He shows how the British government's and the Catholic church's differing agendas affect these people's history and the consequences of not dealing with their history and past resulting in their subjugation and passivity. The theme of haunting plays a major role in the history of this family and the overall society of this people illustrating the problems of not confronting and not knowing the past. The hauntings also further illustrate how various forms of authority affect the way history is written and hidden. Deane begins the novel with the haunting of the family's home which starts to hint at the importance of history and the failure to deal with it. "'There's something between us. A shadow. Don't move,'" (Deane 3). This is the first reference to there being something dark and sinister to this family. The "shadow" here is the ghost that haunts the family, but in fact represents the true history of the family that has not been exorcised. By calling it a shadow, this brings up dark and ominous connotations about what has happened in their past. This shadow is also between the mother and son, a clear indication that the existence of it keeps them apart emotionally. The secret of their history builds walls between the members which will destroy the relationships among their family. "'No, nothing, nothing at all...All imagination...There's nothing there," (Deane 4). The mother ignores the truth and fails to deal with it. She attempts to ignore it by burying the past inside her. The truth about their history becomes nothing more than a ghost in this family, festering inside those who know the truth, but don't tell it, which in the long run will destroy themselves and others around them. The house itself is haunted which is used by Deane to illustrate the strength and affect of how history and the failure to deal with it affects the surroundings around a person, in this case the family. We had a ghost, even in the middle of the afternoon...The house was all cobweb tremors. No matter where I walked, it yielded before me and settled behind me. (Deane 5) Deane reestablishes the secrets of the family by saying they had a ghost in the afternoon. This only helps to strengthen that this is not the typical ghost and haunting, which in the usual sense would take place at night. This is something more, the history of the family that will not go away unless it is brought out. This hidden history and truth is so strong that the house becomes a sort of ghost and haunts the family as well. The house, which further represents Northern Ireland, becomes the past and history that they refuse to deal with, whichconstantly surrounds them. He describes the house as "cobweb tremors" implying that the secrets of their history are old, since the image of cobwebs creates the vision of something long and unattended to. It is this truth about their past that has been unattended to or rather not dealt with. The use of the word tremors describes that this secret still affects them, though it is very old. This reveals Deane's larger concern of how history and not dealing with it can affect everything no matter if it is alive or inanimate. These issues take on a life of their own, unpredictable and uncontrollable. In "Eddie" Deane begins with the stories of what may have happened to the narrator's uncle, commenting on who writes history. "I wanted him to make the story his own and cut in on their talk," (Deane 8). The story being referred to is that of what happened to the narrator's Uncle Eddie in the distillery shoot out, something that still remains the hidden history of the family. The father by making the story, or rather history his "own" would begin to bring this out into the open, in effect beginning to exorcise these ghosts in their past. Instead by refusing to "cut in on their talk", he effectively allows an outside group to

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Early Marriage in Asian Countries Essay

The Early Marriage in Asian Countries Essay Child Marriage in Yemen and Pakistan Sociology Essay Sample Child Marriage in Yemen and Pakistan Sociology Essay Sample Child marriage, as awful as it may seem to the larger part of the world, is a common practice in many Islamic countries. Statistical records show that 51 million of girls between the age of 15 and 19 are married. The real number of early marriages is higher, as girls married under 15 were not taken into account (Khalife, 2011). Moreover, according to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, â€Å"one in seven girls worldwide would marry before her 15th birthday† (as cited in Khalife, 2011, p. 15). UNICEF states that 10 million girls marry before the age of 18 every year (Raj, McDougal, Silverman, Rusch, 2014) The practice of child marriage is widely spread in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where the economic state of population is low and religion rules everyday life. Child marriage is a rude violation of children’s and women’s rights. It commonly results in sexual abuse, cessation of education, confinement of girls to their husbands’ home s, and absolute dependence upon the husband. Moreover, reproductive health disorders and high rate of maternal deaths are the frequent consequences of early marriage. This paper will consider this social problem of early marriage in two Asian countries, Yemen and Pakistan. These countries have much in common, namely low GNI per capita, low literacy level of the population, and a common religion, Islam. Both in Yemen and in Pakistan, Sharia, Islamic law, regulates everyday life issues of the citizens. However, the countries are geographically remote, with Yemen located in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, and Pakistan in the South Asia. The comparison will discover the degree of pervasiveness of child marriage in both countries, the structural factors that account for this problem, the public opinion, and the steps taken in these countries to stop the abusive practice. Early Marriage Problem Both countries, Yemen and Pakistan, have high rates of child marriage, although the numbers are different. A survey conducted in 2006 jointly by UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) and Yemeni government revealed astonishing data: â€Å"14 percent of girls in Yemen are married before reaching age 15, and 52 percent are married before 18† (as cited in Khalife, 2011). In some rural areas, child marriage is practiced even with 8-year-olg girls. The situation with child marriage in Pakistan is not much better than in Yemen. A survey of female population in the city of Lahore discovered that â€Å"61% of women aged ≠¥15 years are married in the city† (Nasrullah et al., 2014). The 2006-2007 data cited by Raj et al. (2014) show that only 50% of all women that were ever married entered marriage at the age of 18 or older. 26% of women got married at 16-17 years, 18% at 14-15, and 5% became wives under 14 years of age (Raj et al., 2014). In 19% of cases, the age gap between the spouses exceeded 10 years (Raj et al., 2014). Problems Evoked by Child Marriage Early marriage robs girls of childhood and adolescence; they are burdened with family duties and childbearing, while they are children themselves. They are often locked at home to ensure that they are virgins before marriage (Ouis, 2009). After marriage, girls still have less freedom. They are confined to the home, which makes them lose contact with their friends and not have any outside activity without their husbands’ permission (Khalife, 2011; Nasrullah et al., 2014). Being too young, girls are mentally not prepared to handling family life and building right relations with their husbands. The experience of marital duties can be very traumatic. Usually, girls enter marriage with little or no knowledge about family planning. They get pregnant soon after marriage and cannot control the time and the number of pregnancies. Moreover, they are not ready physically either. The course of pregnancy is more problematic in adolescent than in adult women, and obstructed labor due to the small size of pelvises causes life-threatening situations during delivery (Khalife, 2011). Survey participants in Pakistan recognized that they had more health problems, such as menstrual cycle disturbances, pains, miscarriage and physical weakness, than their peers married after 20 did (Nasrullah et al., 2014). Girls who give birth at the age of 10-14 have a five times higher maternal mortality level than young women of 20-24 (Khalife, 2011). In Yemen, for women of all ages, for every 100,000 live births, 210 death cases are registered (Khalife, 2011). Most deaths occur in rural areas where the age of marriage is lower and medical assistance is not available. Statistic records show that 64% of maternal deaths happen while delivering babies at home, which is practiced by the larger part of Yemeni women. In addition, early married women run a twice higher risk of miscarriage and four times higher risk of fetus and infant mortality (Khalife, 2011). In child marriage, girls often become victims of domestic violence, verbal and sexual abuse, and marital rape. According to 2002 domestic violence survey in Yemen, â€Å"17.3 percent of respondents had experienced sexual violence, 54 percent suffered physical abuse, and 50 percent verbal threats† (Khalife, 2011). Low social status limits the possibilities to protest or to get protection. Factors Engendering the Problem The analysis of the problem suggests several structural factors that account for the problem, namely poor economy, religious norms, patriarchy, and illiteracy. These factors are strikingly similar in both countries under discussion. Patriarchy In patriarchal societies, women are not considered equal to men; they are limited in rights and usually depend upon their parent, husband, or guardian. In some cases, children and women are viewed and treated as property. In Pakistan, such practices as â€Å"Watta Satta (bartering bride for bride), Pait Likkhi (marrying children before they are born or are still very young), Addo Baddo (marriage among tribes), and Swara / Khoon-Baha / Vani / Sakh (girls given in marriage as a form of dispute resolution)† are considered traditionally acceptable (Nasrullah et al., 2014). Thus, child marriage is often practiced for social purposes: research estimates approximately equal occurrence of child marriage across all society layers (Raj et al., 2014). Patriarchal societies often have honor ideology, as in the case of Pakistan and Yemen. In patriarchal families, the bride’s virginity is a merit; losing it means damaging the family honor. The honor of the family dictates the parents’ duty to confine a young girl to home in order to protect her from the evil influence of the world and to marry the girl out as soon as she reaches puberty. Therefore, early marriage is one of the ways to keep daughters from pre-marital sex and to secure the good name of the family (Khalife, 2011; Ouis, 2009). If girls happen to lose virginity before marriage or commits adultery, some families refer to honor murder. The cases of honor murders are seldom reported to police and usually concealed within a family (Ouis, 2009). Women’s education is believed to be unnecessary because the role of women is to serve her husband. In Yemen, parents often take young girls from school in order to prepare them for the future marriage, and few of them continue education after marriage. Economic factor In the counties with low income, where social and religious norms allow, marriage is also a form of trade. For low-income families, daughters are burden, as they cannot contribute to the family financially. Marriage is a way to reduce the burden as early as possible. On the other hand, daughters are an asset, because a would-be husband should give dowry in the form of money or presents. Dowry is the bride’s possession; however, the law leaves the time of payment to the guardian’s discretion (Khalife, 2011). Usually, the younger the girl is and the older the bridegroom, the bigger the dowry is. Sometimes, marrying a daughter out to a richer man seems a way to provide for the future of the family and the girls. Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East with high unemployment rate. 80% of Yemeni population live in rural areas and can hardly earn their living by working heavily on farms (Khalife, 2011). Child marriage both in Yemen and Pakistan often serves to relieve the financial state of poor families. Religion In Islam, a man may marry up to four women on condition that he is able to provide for them equally, and this right is widely practiced in Yemen. Additionally, Quran regards women as the men’s lower, and grants them few rights. A man, for example, can divorce his wife by pronouncing his repudiation three times (Khalife, 2011). For a woman, there are only a few conditions for divorce, connected with financial support or abandonment. If there are other reasons, a woman can apply for Khul’a or no-fault divorce, but, as it is connected with repayment of dowry and claims for maintenance, not many women can afford them (Khalife, 2011). The case of Reem, where an 11-year-old Yemeni girl married a 21-year-older man, shows that for a child, it is almost impossible to fight out divorce even if marital abuse and rape are proven (Khalife, 2011). Opponents of marriage age in Yemen ground their arguments on Quran and Sharia. Yemeni Sheikh Al-Zindani, one of the founders of Islah, a fundamentalist political party in opposition to the government, and the leader of Faith Institute, criticized the law banning child marriage as â€Å"un-Islamic and a threat to the culture and society of Yemen† (Khalife, 2011). In Pakistan, even the women who themselves suffered from early marriage believe that the parents’ duty stipulated by Quran is to marry their daughters out as soon as possible after they reach puberty. Of the 19 participants of the survey, only four women expressed the wish not to marry their daughters out before they can receive education and reach a better social status (Nasrullah et al., 2014). Illiteracy Yemen has one of the lowest literacy rates. UNESCO survey conducted in 2007 revealed that â€Å"the adult literacy rate for Yemenis aged 15 and over was 59 percent: 77 percent for males and 40 percent for females† (Khalife, 2011). Literacy rate among young people (between 15 and 24) is 80%; however, the gap between males and females is still significant (93% for males and 67% for females). Illiterate parents often do not value education for girls, as there are few possibilities for women’s employment, and women are confined to their families. Sometimes, parents take girls from school to look after the youngsters and to help with household, or to prepare them for marriage. Besides, in many rural areas female teachers for girls are simply unavailable. Most girls in Yemen do not finish secondary education (Khalife, 2011). In Pakistan, only 25% of all girls finish primary education compared with almost a half of all boys (Nasrullah et al., 2014). Illiteracy and lack of skills bring girls in absolute dependence from their husbands. They are unable to provide for their lives in case of divorce, which makes them endure all hardships that come with marriage. Efforts to Reduce or Eliminate the Problem of Child Marriage The majority of countries in Asia and North Africa confess Islam. In some of them courts and legislation are secular, but most abide by Sharia as the main law. In the majority of Muslim countries, legislation sets the minimum age for marriage; in Egypt, for instance, it is 18 for both boys and girls, as well as in Iraq (Khalife, 2011). In Yemen, the minimum marriage age does not exist currently. In Pakistan, although established by legislative documents, the law is not observed in practice, with marriage being interpreted as a family matter. Yemen. In the case of Yemen, it is different. Despite the fact that Yemen is a signatory to many international documents that clearly state the rights of children and women, such as the Convention on the Rights of Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and others, Yemeni legislation fails to grant them legal protection. First, the legislation lacks a clear and unambiguous definition of a child, so it is difficult to protect children by international law. Second, Sharia defines the women as â€Å"sisters of a men† (as cited in Khalife, 2011), with duties and rights assigned by Sharia and law, which shrink those rights and fail to protect them. Since the war of 1994, Sharia has become the official law, refuting many provisions of earlier Constitution as non-Islamic. Before 1999, the minimum marriage age was set at 15; now, there is none. In 2009, parliamentary majority voted for establishing a minimum marriage age at 17. However, a smaller but more powerful opposition stifled the draft by sending it to the Sharia Legislative Committee for revision. A religious fatwa proclaimed by some Muslim clerics in March 2010 declared establishing marriage age un-Islamic and â€Å"contrary to Sharia† (Khalife, 2011). Besides, parliamentarians could not find agreement about the second part of the draft imposing penalties and imprisonment on husbands who marry girls before puberty and guardians who let it happen (Khalife, 2011). The present political situation in Yemen paralyzed all legislative activity in the country, including this law. In 1999, a provision was added to Personal Status Law to protect young girls against premature sex. The amendment forbids sexual intercourse until the wife reaches puberty. However, there are no appropriate enforcement mechanisms to ensure functioning of this regulation. In practice 11-12-year-old Yemeni girls are often married immediately after they reach puberty, and in some cases before (Khalife, 2011). Another provision of 1999 allowed child divorce in case of forcible child marriage, but repealed their right to maintenance (Khalife, 2011). In Yemen, the activity of non-governmental organizations against the practice of child marriage is remarkable. Yemeni NGOs collaborate with international organizations for human, women’s and children’s rights, such as the Human Rights Watch. They conduct surveys and register cases of violation of human rights in Yemen. Due to the NGOs, child marriage became an issue of public concern in Yemen rising acute political discussion and popular opinion against the tradition that mutilates the lives of young girls. In 2011, a Yemeni woman journalist and activist for women’s rights Tawakkol Karman was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, along with two activists from Liberia (Khalife, 2011). Karman is an active proponent of setting a minimum marriage age. Karman’s activities and awarding attracted attention of the world community to the violation of women’s rights and the problem of child marriage in particular. Pakistan. There are visible efforts to eliminate child marriage in the Pakistani law. The Child Marriage Age restraint of 1929 clearly bans marriage of girls under 16 and boys under 18 (Nasrullah et al., 2014). The child Marriages Restraint Bill of 2009 and the Charter of Child Rights Bill of the same year attempted to raise the minimum marriage age for girls to 18 (Nasrullah et al., 2014). However, in a tribal society like Pakistan, traditional practices prevail even if contrary to the legislation. The traditions of Addo Baddo, Pait Likkhi, Watta Satta, and Swara / Khoon-Baha / Vani / Sakh are applied widely in rural areas and in big city slums (Nasrullah et al., 2014). For the moment, the work of non-governmental organizations fails to embrace all population layers. NGO activists participate in surveys and opinion polls, try to raise awareness of the negative outcomes of child marriage among the population, and attempt to promote sound legislation. Prospects of Elimination of Child Marriage in Yemen and Pakistan In tribal societies, like Yemen and Pakistan, that are ruled by Sharia and live according to honor principles, the improvement of the situation will take a long time. Child marriage is deeply rooted in people’s consciousness and practice; it finds justification with some Islamic clerics and tribal elders who condemn the attempts to protect girls form early marriage as contradictory to Islam and undermining moral principles of the society and their authority. However, it is obvious that under condition of limited literacy of the population, the initiative should be taken by the governments of both countries. What is particularly striking, even among women there is no unanimous opinion about the harm inflicted by child marriage to girls’ health and social status. Pakistani random survey shows that the large majority of the respondents (13 women of 19) who were married between 11 and 17 years are satisfied with their roles, 10 of them find the practice of child marriage appropriate for religious and moral reasons, and 13 would marry out their daughters as children, too (Nasrullah et al., 2014). Most of those women link their reproductive health problems to medical conditions and not to the early sexual life and childbearing. Only 6 of the 19 respondents resolutely condemned the practice of child marriage, and only 4 of them were in favor of education for girls as means to be self-supporting (Nasrullah et al., 2014). At the same time, the data presented by Nadia Khalife (2011) show greater dissatisfaction of Yemeni women with the state of things, and the society shows greater concern . However, parallels with Pakistan and public protests with participation of women against the law banning child marriage in Yemen (Khalife, 2011) suggest the existence of women who are not only content with the practice but also would defend it for religious reasons and honor principles. While people live on the verge of extreme poverty, as it is in Yemen, and have scarce education, employment and medical assistance opportunities, the balance is not likely to break. Political turmoil stifles all legislative activity, and the influence of fundamentalist Islamic confessions and parties impedes the struggle for human rights. Unless the situation stabilizes within the following years, it is difficult to predict significant improvement. Even if new political leaders come to power and pass new laws to set the minimum marriage age and protect children’s and women’s rights, they will have to create enforcement mechanisms that were unavailable in the old system. The situation in Pakistan does not show great signs of improvement as well, with fundamentalist parties being at power. Besides, Pakistani women show lower awareness of the harm inflicted by child marriage and lower readiness to change and to fight for changes than Yemeni women do. Unless the government implements strict responsibility for violation of the Child Marriage Restraint Act, traditional practices of child marriage will continue. For both countries, the improvement depends to a great extent upon spreading awareness among the population about the consequences of child marriage, â€Å"promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women, and provision of economic opportunities for girls and their families such as microfinance schemes† (Nasrullah et al., 2014). It is a vast field for NGOs and governmental organizations. International human rights organizations should also play their parts to raise worldwide awareness of the problem and advise the governments. The results of research of child marriage in Pakistan and Yemen show how common this problem is across the Asian continent. It also reveals that the constituent factors that account for the problem are the same independent of the country. These factors are religious obscurantism, patriarchal culture with honor ideology and historically rooted tradition, poor economic situation, lack of appropriate legislative and enforcement base, and illiteracy of the population. Each factor taken separately does not account for the problem of child marriage in the modern world, but their combination makes it extremely difficult to eliminate or at least alleviate the situation. The problem of child marriage in Yemen, Pakistan and other countries where it exists can be solved only through joint efforts of the local governments, local and international NGOs, and wide involvement of the local and world communities.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Cómo Cerrar Cita Para Visa Americana de Emergencia

Cà ³mo Cerrar Cita Para Visa Americana de Emergencia En ocasiones puede surgir la necesidad de obtener una visa para Estados Unidos con carcter de urgencia. Pero,  ¿quà © es considerado como urgente y cul es la tramitacià ³n para solicitarla? Adems de a esas preguntas en este artà ­culo se recuerda cules son las causas por las que la visa puede ser negada. Quà © Es Considerado Emergencia Para Solicitar la Visa Americana Son consideradas emergencias situaciones como: La muerte de un familiar inmediato (padre, madre, cà ³nyuge, hijos o hermanos).Una importante necesidad de recibir atencià ³n mà ©dica en Estados Unidos para sà ­ mismo o para acompaà ±ar a un familiar inmediato que la necesita. La visa para recibir tratamiento mà ©dico es la de turista.Cuando surge una oportunidad de negocio.Cuando se necesita asistir a un evento deportivo, conferencia profesional, un entrenamiento o una conferencia de prensa.Cuando la cita ordinaria para una visa de estudiante est fechada posteriormente al dà ­a de inicio del curso.En los casos de visas de trabajo, cuando la planilla I-797 està © aprobada y el empleador requiera la presencia inmediata del empleado en Estados Unidos. No se concedern adelantos de las citas para las visas americanas por cuestiones de turismo ya que eso no es una emergencia. No importa que se tengan los boletos de avià ³n o el paquete de hotel y atracciones. Es por esta razà ³n que nunca debe pagarse por las vacaciones si no se tiene ya la visa en mano. Procedimiento Para Solicitar una Visa de Emergencia Es necesario entender que no existe un procedimiento estndar, sino que varà ­a de paà ­s a paà ­s. Por ejemplo, en Mà ©xico debe solicitarse una visa de turista siguiendo el procedimiento regular. Y una vez que se tenga la cita, enviar un correo electrà ³nico solicitando el cambio de tramitacià ³n regular a urgente. Si la peticià ³n es concedida, se notificar al interesado y se le indicar el procedimiento a seguir. Tener en cuenta que la direccià ³n de correo electrà ³nico es distinta si la solicitud se formula en inglà ©s o, si por el contrario, se escribe en espaà ±ol. Si la peticià ³n es denegada, todavà ­a sigue vigente la cita regular para la visa. Sin embargo, en otros paà ­ses la peticià ³n de cita urgente para una visa americana debe hacerse por telà ©fono, por lo que se debe consultar la pgina web de la oficina consular para saber bien quà © procedimiento debe seguirse. En estos casos de peticià ³n por telà ©fono hay que tener en cuenta que se est cobrando la llamada a un precio superior al ordinario. Adems, si se concede la peticià ³n de cita habr que pagar al momento el arancel de la visa, mediante una tarjeta de crà ©dito o de dà ©bito Visa, MasterCard o American Express. En los casos de peticià ³n por telà ©fono de cita urgente para la visa debe tenerse a mano para hablar con el operario la siguiente informacià ³n: Nombre, lugar y fecha de nacimiento del solicitante.Nà ºmero de pasaporte y nacionalidad.Direccià ³n de correo electrà ³nico.Y para ciertas visas, como algunas que permiten trabajar temporalmente en Estados Unidos, informacià ³n sobre las mismas. Si el solicitante no puede realizar la llamada por sà ­ mismo, puede realizarse en su nombre un familiar o amigo, pero necesitar tener a mano el nombre completo y nà ºmero de pasaporte del solicitante. Consejo Sobre Lugar de Residencia Para solicitar urgentemente una visa se suele requerir tener la residencia o la nacionalidad del paà ­s desde donde se solicita la peticià ³n, salvo casos muy excepcionales. Por ejemplo, cuando se est en otro paà ­s de vacaciones y se precisa la visa americana de urgencia para transitar por Estados Unidos en su viaje de regreso al paà ­s de origen. Problemas Para Sacar la Visa de Emergencia A pesar de surgir una emergencia por la que hay que viajar a Estados Unidos, el consulado puede negar la peticià ³n. Y es que para poder obtener una visa americana no inmigrante, como por ejemplo la de turista, hay que cumplir dos requisitos: ser admisible y ser elegible. Son varias las razones por las que se considera que una persona es inelegible para la visa americana. La ms frecuente es la de no probar lazos econà ³micos y/o familiares suficientes en el lugar de residencia habitual. Si la razà ³n por la que se negà ³ la visa es causa por ser inelegible no es posible solicitar un perdà ³n, conocido en algunos paà ­ses como waiver o permiso. Por el contrario, si la razà ³n por la que el consulado no aprueba la visa es por causa de inadmisibilidad, en algunos casos es posible pedir un perdà ³n. La razà ³n ms frecuente que convierte a una persona en inadmisible es por estancia ilegal en Estados Unidos en una fecha anterior. Para un mayor conocimiento sobre cà ³mo sacar la visa de turista y cà ³mo evitar su cancelacià ³n o revocacià ³n es conveniente tomar esta prueba de respuestas mà ºltiples, ya que ayuda a aclarar dudas. Este es un articulo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Cómo Cerrar Cita Para Visa Americana de Emergencia

Cà ³mo Cerrar Cita Para Visa Americana de Emergencia En ocasiones puede surgir la necesidad de obtener una visa para Estados Unidos con carcter de urgencia. Pero,  ¿quà © es considerado como urgente y cul es la tramitacià ³n para solicitarla? Adems de a esas preguntas en este artà ­culo se recuerda cules son las causas por las que la visa puede ser negada. Quà © Es Considerado Emergencia Para Solicitar la Visa Americana Son consideradas emergencias situaciones como: La muerte de un familiar inmediato (padre, madre, cà ³nyuge, hijos o hermanos).Una importante necesidad de recibir atencià ³n mà ©dica en Estados Unidos para sà ­ mismo o para acompaà ±ar a un familiar inmediato que la necesita. La visa para recibir tratamiento mà ©dico es la de turista.Cuando surge una oportunidad de negocio.Cuando se necesita asistir a un evento deportivo, conferencia profesional, un entrenamiento o una conferencia de prensa.Cuando la cita ordinaria para una visa de estudiante est fechada posteriormente al dà ­a de inicio del curso.En los casos de visas de trabajo, cuando la planilla I-797 està © aprobada y el empleador requiera la presencia inmediata del empleado en Estados Unidos. No se concedern adelantos de las citas para las visas americanas por cuestiones de turismo ya que eso no es una emergencia. No importa que se tengan los boletos de avià ³n o el paquete de hotel y atracciones. Es por esta razà ³n que nunca debe pagarse por las vacaciones si no se tiene ya la visa en mano. Procedimiento Para Solicitar una Visa de Emergencia Es necesario entender que no existe un procedimiento estndar, sino que varà ­a de paà ­s a paà ­s. Por ejemplo, en Mà ©xico debe solicitarse una visa de turista siguiendo el procedimiento regular. Y una vez que se tenga la cita, enviar un correo electrà ³nico solicitando el cambio de tramitacià ³n regular a urgente. Si la peticià ³n es concedida, se notificar al interesado y se le indicar el procedimiento a seguir. Tener en cuenta que la direccià ³n de correo electrà ³nico es distinta si la solicitud se formula en inglà ©s o, si por el contrario, se escribe en espaà ±ol. Si la peticià ³n es denegada, todavà ­a sigue vigente la cita regular para la visa. Sin embargo, en otros paà ­ses la peticià ³n de cita urgente para una visa americana debe hacerse por telà ©fono, por lo que se debe consultar la pgina web de la oficina consular para saber bien quà © procedimiento debe seguirse. En estos casos de peticià ³n por telà ©fono hay que tener en cuenta que se est cobrando la llamada a un precio superior al ordinario. Adems, si se concede la peticià ³n de cita habr que pagar al momento el arancel de la visa, mediante una tarjeta de crà ©dito o de dà ©bito Visa, MasterCard o American Express. En los casos de peticià ³n por telà ©fono de cita urgente para la visa debe tenerse a mano para hablar con el operario la siguiente informacià ³n: Nombre, lugar y fecha de nacimiento del solicitante.Nà ºmero de pasaporte y nacionalidad.Direccià ³n de correo electrà ³nico.Y para ciertas visas, como algunas que permiten trabajar temporalmente en Estados Unidos, informacià ³n sobre las mismas. Si el solicitante no puede realizar la llamada por sà ­ mismo, puede realizarse en su nombre un familiar o amigo, pero necesitar tener a mano el nombre completo y nà ºmero de pasaporte del solicitante. Consejo Sobre Lugar de Residencia Para solicitar urgentemente una visa se suele requerir tener la residencia o la nacionalidad del paà ­s desde donde se solicita la peticià ³n, salvo casos muy excepcionales. Por ejemplo, cuando se est en otro paà ­s de vacaciones y se precisa la visa americana de urgencia para transitar por Estados Unidos en su viaje de regreso al paà ­s de origen. Problemas Para Sacar la Visa de Emergencia A pesar de surgir una emergencia por la que hay que viajar a Estados Unidos, el consulado puede negar la peticià ³n. Y es que para poder obtener una visa americana no inmigrante, como por ejemplo la de turista, hay que cumplir dos requisitos: ser admisible y ser elegible. Son varias las razones por las que se considera que una persona es inelegible para la visa americana. La ms frecuente es la de no probar lazos econà ³micos y/o familiares suficientes en el lugar de residencia habitual. Si la razà ³n por la que se negà ³ la visa es causa por ser inelegible no es posible solicitar un perdà ³n, conocido en algunos paà ­ses como waiver o permiso. Por el contrario, si la razà ³n por la que el consulado no aprueba la visa es por causa de inadmisibilidad, en algunos casos es posible pedir un perdà ³n. La razà ³n ms frecuente que convierte a una persona en inadmisible es por estancia ilegal en Estados Unidos en una fecha anterior. Para un mayor conocimiento sobre cà ³mo sacar la visa de turista y cà ³mo evitar su cancelacià ³n o revocacià ³n es conveniente tomar esta prueba de respuestas mà ºltiples, ya que ayuda a aclarar dudas. Este es un articulo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.